The nucleus contains protons (tiny particles each with a single positive electric charge) and neutrons (particles without any electric charge).
Orbiting around the nucleus are electrons (tiny particles each with a single electric charge).
Biostratigraphic or faunal dating utilizes known dates of appearance or extinction for specific fauna to provide approximate dates of the strata in which they are found.
Cultural dating utilizes changes in form of various cultural objects, such as tools or pottery, to provide a general date for a stratum or site.
The atoms in each chemical element may vary slightly in the numbers of neutrons within their nuclei.
These slightly different atoms of the same chemical element are called isotopes of that element.
Most people today think that geologists have proven the earth and its rocks to be billions of years old by their use of the radioactive dating methods. Given so much time, the ‘impossible’ becomes possible, the possible probable, and the probable virtually certain.
Ages of many millions of years for rocks and fossils are glibly presented as fact in many textbooks, the popular media, and museums. One has only to wait: time itself performs the miracles.”1 Yet few people seem to know how these radiometric dating methods work.
suggested that lead is one of the disintegration products of uranium, in which case the older a uranium-bearing mineral the greater should be its proportional part of lead.
Analyzing specimens whose relative geologic ages were known, Boltwood found that the ratio of lead to uranium did indeed increase with age.
Other relative methods include chemical dating, biostratigraphic or faunal dating, and cultural dating.